VCU Libraries Gallery

Resources and Credits

"Adèle Clark, Artist and Activist" was created by Ray Bonis, Senior Research Associate for Special Collections and Archives at James Branch Cabell Library with significant additions by Alice Campbell, Digital Outreach and Special Projects Librarian. Many thanks to Erin White, Head of Digital Engagement and Yuki Hibben, Interim Head and Curator of Books and Art for their valuable contributions to the exhibit. Thanks also to the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill for permission to reproduce a portion of Adèle Clark's oral history by Winston Broadfoot.

This exhibit uses images of materials primarily found in the Adèle Goodman Clark Papers housed in Special Collections and Archives at the James Branch Cabell Library, VCU Libraries. Four other institutions have substantial Clark related manuscript collections in their holdings. The Clark papers relating to her work as director of the WPA's Federal Art Project in Virginia are at the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. The Virginia Museum of History and Culture has a manuscript collection of some 900 items donated by Clark. Both the Valentine Museum and the Beth Ahabah Museum and Archives have smaller but no less interesting collections of publications, photographs, and artifacts donated by Clark and her family. 


Barbara Batson, Marianne E. Julienne, and Brent Tarter, The Campaign for Woman Suffrage in Virginia, The History Press, 2020.

Ray Bonis, "Adèle Clark: The Artist as Activist," Virginia Women: Their Lives and Times, Volume 2, University of Georgia Press, 2016.

Ray Bonis, "Ora E. Brown Stokes (1882–1957)," Dictionary of Virginia Biography, Library of Virginia (1998– ), 2019.

Ray Bonis, Anne Clay Crenshaw and the Women's Suffrage Movement in Virginia, Special Collections and Archives, James Branch Cabell Library, VCU Libraries, 1998. Archived online exhibit.

Adèle Clark, Interview with Adèle Clark by Winston Broadfoot, 28, February 1964, (G-0014-2), Southern Oral History Program Collection #4007, Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Adèle Clark, letter to the editor, Richmond Times-Dispatch, August 16, 1976.

Samantha Karam Encarnacion, Remembering Theresa Pollak: An Exhibition on the Founder of VCUarts. Special Collections and Archives, James Branch Cabell Library, VCU Libraries, 2014.

Equal Suffrage League of Virginia records, 1908-1938. Accession 22002. Organization records collection, The Library of Virginia, Richmond, VA.

Sarah Hunter Graham, "Woman Suffrage in Virginia: The Equal Suffrage League and Pressure-Group Politics, 1909-1920," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol.101, No.2 (April 1993).

Jo Hyde, "Personality Profile: Miss Adele Clark," Richmond Times-Dispatch, September 16, 1956.

Cassie Williams Jones, "Virginia recognizes VCU’s historic landmark for women’s rights: VCU’s Crenshaw House receives state historical marker for founding of the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia," VCU News, November 21, 2012.

Charles E. Mahon, "Adèle Clark: A Woman for All Seasons," The Catholic Virginian, December 15, 1967.

Jennifer Davis McDaid, "Adèle Clark (1882–1983)." Encyclopedia Virginia. Virginia Humanities, 2008.  

Jennifer Davis McDaid, "Ida Mae Thompson (1866–1947)," Dictionary of Virginia Biography, Library of Virginia (1998–), 2018.

Robert Merritt, “Adele Clark Cast a Long Shadow,” Richmond Times-Dispatch, June 12, 1983. 

Frances S. Pollard,"Nora Houston (1883–1942)," Dictionary of Virginia Biography, Library of Virginia (1998– ), 2018.

"Stanley, Gray Plans Scored at Hearing," Richmond Times-Dispatch, September 7, 1956.

Brent Tarter, "Lila Hardaway Meade Valentine (1865–1921),"  Dictionary of Virginia Biography, Library of Virginia (1998– ), 2019.

Maggie L. Walker Family Papers, 1920 DiaryMaggie Lena Walker,
Courtesy National Park Service, Maggie L. Walker National Historic Site.